Levels of Use of Technology

Posted: February 5, 2007 in Education, Educational Technology, Instructional Technology

There are various levels of use frameworks that enable administrators or educators to measure an innovation’s effectiveness. Gene E. Hall, Susan F. Loucks, William L. Rutherford, and Beulah W. Newlove define eight Levels of Use: Level 0 (Non-Use), Level I (Orientation), Level II (Preparation), Level III (Mechanical Use), Level IV (broken into two levels: IV A Routine, IV B Refinement), Level V (Integration), and Level VI (Renewal) (Ely & Plomp, 2001). Each level identifies the rate at which a user has incorporated an innovation into their field, and ultimately determines a point where the user modifies an innovation or searches for and finds an alternative. Each level of use can be matched to models such as the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) of G.E. Hall and S.M. Hord. This model identifies and provides assessment for seven stages of concern: awareness, informational, personal, management, consequence, collaboration, and refocusing (Loucks-Horsley, 1996). In this model people who are experiencing or considering change are found to have many questions. The model grants the importance of attending to where people are and the questions they have, and it suggests that attention be paid over an extended period of time as innovation may require three years for concerns to be resolved and later ones to emerge (Loucks-Horsley, 1996). Christopher Moertsch’s Levels of Technology Implementation also aligns with the Levels of Use model by identifying categories in the following way: nonuse, awareness, exploration, infusion, integration (mechanical), integration (routine), expansion, and refinement (Moertsch, 1998). Any and all of these models can assist educators in implementing and evaluation of the innovation process, and educators can benefit from using these models to chart or define stages of success.

Ely, Donald P. & Plomp, Tjeerd (2001). Classic Writings on Instructional Technology. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.

Loucks-Horsley, Susan, (1996). The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM): A Model for Change in Individuals. National Standards & the Science Curriculum. Retrieved November 15, 2004, from http://www.nas.edu/rise/backg4a.htm

Moertsch, C. (1998), Levels of Use of Technology. Computer Efficiancy, Learning and Leading with Technology. Retrieved November 15, 2004, from http://www.rmcdenver.com/useguide/cbam.htm


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